From Miller-McCune, via Good, we've got a great infographic comparing total carbon emissions to per capita carbon emissions, by country:
Here's the link to the full-size original (.pdf).
Not surprisingly, the U.S. (the world's largest economy) and China (the world's most populous country) are the two largest total carbon emitters, but they look much smaller on a per capita basis. On a per capita, the biggest polluters are almost all small island nations, since these countries have to import almost all of their manufactured goods from very, very far away.
So, we see that all countries - developing and developed alike - have their role to play in fighting climate-change-causing carbon emissions.